# 14 “Q” Standard Extension for Quad-Precision Floating-Point, Version 2.2

This chapter describes the Q standard extension for 128-bit quad-precision binary floating-point instructions compliant with the IEEE 754-2008 arithmetic standard. The quad-precision binary floating-point instruction-set extension is named “Q”; it depends on the double-precision floating-point extension D. The floating-point registers are now extended to hold either a single, double, or quad-precision floating-point value (FLEN=128). The NaN-boxing scheme described in Section [nanboxing] is now extended recursively to allow a single-precision value to be NaN-boxed inside a double-precision value which is itself NaN-boxed inside a quad-precision value.

## 14.1 Quad-Precision Load and Store Instructions

New 128-bit variants of LOAD-FP and STORE-FP instructions are added, encoded with a new value for the funct3 width field.

FLQ and FSQ are only guaranteed to execute atomically if the effective address is naturally aligned and XLEN=128.

FLQ and FSQ do not modify the bits being transferred; in particular, the payloads of non-canonical NaNs are preserved.

## 14.2 Quad-Precision Computational Instructions

A new supported format is added to the format field of most instructions, as shown in Table [tab:fpextfmt].

fmt field |
Mnemonic | Meaning |
---|---|---|

00 | S | 32-bit single-precision |

01 | D | 64-bit double-precision |

10 | H | 16-bit half-precision |

11 | Q | 128-bit quad-precision |

The quad-precision floating-point computational instructions are defined analogously to their double-precision counterparts, but operate on quad-precision operands and produce quad-precision results.

## 14.3 Quad-Precision Conversion and Move Instructions

New floating-point-to-integer and integer-to-floating-point conversion instructions are added. These instructions are defined analogously to the double-precision-to-integer and integer-to-double-precision conversion instructions. FCVT.W.Q or FCVT.L.Q converts a quad-precision floating-point number to a signed 32-bit or 64-bit integer, respectively. FCVT.Q.W or FCVT.Q.L converts a 32-bit or 64-bit signed integer, respectively, into a quad-precision floating-point number. FCVT.WU.Q, FCVT.LU.Q, FCVT.Q.WU, and FCVT.Q.LU variants convert to or from unsigned integer values. FCVT.L[U].Q and FCVT.Q.L[U] are RV64-only instructions. Note FCVT.Q.L[U] always produces an exact result and is unaffected by rounding mode.

New floating-point-to-floating-point conversion instructions are added. These instructions are defined analogously to the double-precision floating-point-to-floating-point conversion instructions. FCVT.S.Q or FCVT.Q.S converts a quad-precision floating-point number to a single-precision floating-point number, or vice-versa, respectively. FCVT.D.Q or FCVT.Q.D converts a quad-precision floating-point number to a double-precision floating-point number, or vice-versa, respectively.

Floating-point to floating-point sign-injection instructions, FSGNJ.Q, FSGNJN.Q, and FSGNJX.Q are defined analogously to the double-precision sign-injection instruction.

FMV.X.Q and FMV.Q.X instructions are not provided in RV32 or RV64, so quad-precision bit patterns must be moved to the integer registers via memory.

## 14.4 Quad-Precision Floating-Point Compare Instructions

The quad-precision floating-point compare instructions are defined analogously to their double-precision counterparts, but operate on quad-precision operands.

## 14.5 Quad-Precision Floating-Point Classify Instruction

The quad-precision floating-point classify instruction, FCLASS.Q, is defined analogously to its double-precision counterpart, but operates on quad-precision operands.

RV128 will support FMV.X.Q and FMV.Q.X in the Q extension.